IPA Provides Useful Information about the Automotive Service Industry
IPA Statistics on the Automotive Industry
- Formal automotive technician training is the best preparation for these challenging technology-based jobs
- Opportunities should be very good for automotive service technicians and mechanics with diagnostic and problem-
solving skills and knowledge of electronics and mathematics.
- Automotive service technicians and mechanics must continually adapt to changing technology and repair techniques
as vehicle components and systems become increasingly sophisticated.
NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY
The work of automotive service technicians and mechanics has evolved from mechanical repair to a high technology
job. Today, integrated electronic systems and complex computers run vehicles and measure their performance while on
the road. Technicians must have an increasingly broad base of knowledge about how vehicles’ complex components work
and interact, as well as the ability to work with electronic diagnostic equipment and computer-based technical
Automotive service technicians and mechanics use their high-tech skills to inspect, maintain, and repair automobiles
and light trucks that have gasoline engines. The increasing sophistication of automotive technology now requires
workers who can use computerized shop equipment and work with electronic components while maintaining their skills
with traditional handtools.
When mechanical or electrical troubles occur, technicians first get a description of the symptoms from the owner or,
if they work in a large shop, the repair service estimator who wrote the repair order. To locate the problem,
technicians use a diagnostic approach. First, they test to see whether components and systems are proper and secure.
Then, they isolate the components or systems that could not logically be the cause of the problem. For example, if
an air-conditioner malfunctions, the technician’s diagnostic approach can pinpoint a problem as simple as a low
coolant level or as complex as a bad drive-train connection that has shorted out the air conditioner. Technicians
may have to test drive the vehicle or use a variety of testing equipment, such as onboard and hand-held diagnostic
computers or compression gauges, to identify the source of the problem. These tests may indicate whether a component
is salvageable or whether a new one is required to get the vehicle back in working order.
During routine service inspections, technicians test and lubricate engines and other major components. In some cases,
the technician may repair or replace worn parts before they cause breakdowns that could damage critical components of
the vehicle. Technicians usually follow a checklist to ensure that they examine every critical part. Belts, hoses,
plugs, brake and fuel systems, and other potentially troublesome items are among those closely watched.
Service technicians use a variety of tools in their work—power tools, such as pneumatic wrenches to remove bolts
quickly; machine tools like lathes and grinding machines to rebuild brakes; welding and flame-cutting equipment
to remove and repair exhaust systems, and jacks and hoists to lift cars and engines. They also use common handtools,
such as screwdrivers, pliers, and wrenches, to work on small parts and in hard-to-reach places.
In modern repair shops, service technicians compare the readouts from diagnostic testing devices with the
benchmarked standards given by the manufacturer of the components being tested. Deviations outside of acceptable
levels are an indication to the technician that further attention to an area is necessary. The testing devices
diagnose problems and make precision adjustments with calculations downloaded from large computerized databases.
The computerized systems provide automatic updates to technical manuals and unlimited access to manufacturers’
service information, technical service bulletins, and other databases that allow technicians to keep current on
problem spots and to learn new procedures.
Automotive service technicians in large shops have increasingly become specialized. For example, transmission
technicians and rebuilders work on gear trains, couplings, hydraulic pumps, and other parts of transmissions.
Extensive knowledge of computer controls, the ability to diagnose electrical and hydraulic problems, and other
specialized skills are needed to work on these complex components, which employ some of the most sophisticated
technology used in vehicles. Tuneup technicians adjust the ignition timing and valves, and adjust or replace
spark plugs and other parts to ensure efficient engine performance. They often use electronic testing equipment
to isolate and adjust malfunctions in fuel, ignition, and emissions control systems.
Automotive air-conditioning repairers install and repair air-conditioners and service their components, such
as compressors, condensers, and controls. These workers require special training in Federal and State regulations
governing the handling and disposal of refrigerants. Front-end mechanics align and balance wheels and repair
steering mechanisms and suspension systems. They frequently use special alignment equipment and wheel-balancing
machines. Brake repairers adjust brakes, replace brake linings and pads, and make other repairs on brake systems.
Some technicians and mechanics specialize in both brake and front-end work.
About half of automotive service technicians work a standard 40-hour week, but almost 30 percent work more than
40 hours a week. Many of those working extended hours are self-employed technicians. To satisfy customer service
needs, some service shops offer evening and weekend service. Generally, service technicians work indoors in well-
ventilated and -lighted repair shops. However, some shops are drafty and noisy. Although they fix some problems
with simple computerized adjustments, technicians frequently work with dirty and greasy parts, and in awkward
positions. They often lift heavy parts and tools. Minor cuts, burns, and bruises are common, but technicians
usually avoid serious accidents when the shop is kept clean and orderly and safety practices are observed.
Automotive service technicians and mechanics held about 818,000 jobs in 2002. The majority worked for automotive
repair and maintenance shops, automobile dealers, and retailers and wholesalers of automotive parts, accessories,
and supplies. Others found employment in gasoline stations; home and auto supply stores; automotive equipment
rental and leasing companies; Federal, State, and local governments; and other organizations. About 16 percent
of service technicians were self-employed, more than twice the proportion for all installation, maintenance, and
OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY
TRAINING AND ADVANCEMENT
Automotive technology is rapidly increasing in sophistication, and most training authorities strongly
recommend that persons seeking automotive service technician and mechanic jobs complete a formal training
program in high school or in a postsecondary vocational school. However, some service technicians still
learn the trade solely by assisting and learning from experienced workers.
Many high schools, community colleges, and public and private vocational and technical schools offer automotive
service technician training programs. The traditional postsecondary programs usually provide a thorough career
preparation that expands upon the student’s high school repair experience.
Postsecondary automotive technician training programs vary greatly in format, but normally provide intensive
career preparation through a combination of classroom instruction and hands-on practice. Some trade and technical
school programs provide concentrated training for 6 months to a year, depending on how many hours the student
attends each week. Community college programs normally spread the training over 2 years; supplement the automotive
training with instruction in English, basic mathematics, computers, and other subjects; and award an associate
degree or certificate. Some students earn repair certificates and opt to leave the program to begin their career
before graduation. Recently, some programs have added to their curriculums training on employability skills such as
customer service and stress management. Employers find that these skills help technicians handle the additional
responsibilities of dealing with the customers and parts vendors.
High school programs, while an asset, vary greatly in quality. The better programs, such as the Automotive Youth
Education Service (AYES), with about 150 participating schools and more than 300 participating dealers, conclude
with the students receiving their technician’s certification and high school diploma. Other programs offer only an
introduction to automotive technology and service for the future consumer or hobbyist. Still others aim to equip
graduates with enough skills to get a job as a mechanic’s helper or trainee mechanic.
The various automobile manufacturers and their participating dealers sponsor 2-year associate degree programs at
postsecondary schools across the Nation. The Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology
(ACCSCT) currently certifies a number of automotive and diesel technology schools. Schools update their curriculums
frequently to reflect changing technology and equipment. Students in these programs typically spend alternate 6- to
12-week periods attending classes full time and working full time in the service departments of sponsoring dealers.
At these dealerships, students get practical experience while assigned to an experienced worker who provides hands-
on instruction and timesaving tips.
The National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF), an affiliate of the National Institute for
Automotive Service Excellence (ASE), establishes the standards by which training facilities become certified. Once the
training facility achieves these minimal standards, NATEF recommends the facility to ASE for certification. The ASE
certification is a nationally recognized standard for programs offered by high schools, postsecondary trade schools,
technical institutes, and community colleges that train automobile service technicians. Automotive manufacturers provide
ASE certified instruction, service equipment, and current-model cars on which students practice new skills and learn the
latest automotive technology. While ASE certification is voluntary, it does signify that the program meets uniform
standards for instructional facilities, equipment, staff credentials, and curriculum. To ensure that programs keep up
with ever-changing technology, repair techniques, and ASE standards, the certified programs are subjected to periodic
compliance reviews and mandatory recertification. NATEF program experts also review and update program standards to match
the level of training and skill-level achievement necessary for success in the occupation. In 2002, about 1,200 high
school and postsecondary automotive service technician training programs had been certified by ASE.
For trainee automotive service technician jobs, employers look for people with strong communication and analytical
skills. Technicians need good reading, mathematics, and computer skills to study technical manuals and to keep abreast
of new technology and learn new service and repair procedures and specifications. Trainees also must possess
mechanical aptitude and knowledge of how automobiles work. Most employers regard the successful completion of a
vocational training program in automotive service technology as the best preparation for trainee positions. Experience
working on motor vehicles in the Armed Forces or as a hobby also is valuable. Because of the complexity of new vehicles,
a growing number of employers require completion of high school and additional postsecondary training. Courses in
automotive repair, electronics, physics, chemistry, English, computers, and mathematics provide a good educational
background for a career as a service technician.
Many new cars have several onboard computers, operating everything from the engine to the radio. Some of the more
advanced vehicles have global positioning systems, Internet access, and other high-tech features integrated into
the functions of the vehicle. Therefore, knowledge of electronics and computers has grown increasingly important
for service technicians. Engine controls and dashboard instruments were among the first components to use
electronics but, now, everything from brakes to transmissions and air-conditioning systems to steering systems is
run primarily by computers and electronic components. In the past, a specialist usually handled any problems
involving electrical systems or electronics. Now that electronics are so common, it is essential for service
technicians to be familiar with at least the basic principles of electronics. Electrical components or a series of
related components account for nearly all malfunctions in modern vehicles.
In addition to electronics and computers, automotive service technicians will have to learn and understand the
science behind the alternate-fuel vehicles that have begun to enter the market. The fuel for these vehicles will
come from the dehydrogenization of water, electric fuel cells, natural gas, solar power, and other nonpetroleum-
based sources. Some vehicles will even capture the energy from brakes and use it as fuel. As vehicles with these
new technologies become more common, technicians will need additional training to learn the science and engineering
that makes them possible.
Beginners usually start as trainee technicians, mechanics’ helpers, lubrication workers, or gasoline service
station attendants, and gradually acquire and practice their skills by working with experienced mechanics and
technicians. With a few months’ experience, beginners perform many routine service tasks and make simple repairs.
It usually takes 2 to 5 years of experience to become a journey-level service technician, who is expected to
quickly perform the more difficult types of routine service and repairs. However, some graduates of postsecondary
automotive training programs are often able to earn promotion to the journey level after only a few months on the
job. An additional 1 to 2 years of experience familiarizes mechanics and technicians with all types of repairs.
Difficult specialties, such as transmission repair, require another year or two of training and experience. In
contrast, brake specialists may learn their jobs in considerably less time because they do not need a complete
knowledge of automotive repair.
In the past, many persons became automotive service technicians through 3- or 4-year formal apprenticeship programs.
However, apprenticeships have become rare, as formal vocational training programs in automotive service technology
have become more common.
At work, the most important possessions of technicians and mechanics are their handtools. Technicians and mechanics
usually provide their own tools, and many experienced workers have thousands of dollars invested in them. Employers
typically furnish expensive power tools, engine analyzers, and other diagnostic equipment, but technicians
accumulate handtools with experience. Some formal training programs have alliances with tool manufacturers that
help entry-level technicians accumulate tools during their training period.
Employers increasingly send experienced automotive service technicians to manufacturer training centers to learn
to repair new models or to receive special training in the repair of components, such as electronic fuel injection
or air-conditioners. Motor vehicle dealers also may send promising beginners to manufacturer-sponsored mechanic
training programs. Employers typically furnish this additional training to maintain or upgrade employees’ skills and
thus increase the employees’ value to the dealership. Factory representatives also visit many shops to conduct short
Voluntary certification by the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) has become a standard
credential for automotive service technicians. Certification is available in 1 or more of 8 different service areas,
such as electrical systems, engine repair, brake systems, suspension and steering, and heating and air-conditioning.
For certification in each area, technicians must have at least 2 years of experience and pass a written examination.
Completion of an automotive training program in high school, vocational or trade school, or community or junior college
may be substituted for 1 year of experience. In some cases, graduates of ASE-certified programs achieve certification
in up to three specialties. For certification as a master automotive mechanic, technicians must be certified in all
eight areas. Mechanics and technicians must retake each examination at least once every 5 years to maintain their
Experienced technicians who have leadership ability sometimes advance to shop supervisor or service manager. Those
who work well with customers may become automotive repair service estimators. Some with sufficient funds open independent
Median hourly earnings of automotive service technicians and mechanics, including commission, were $14.71 in 2002.
The middle 50 percent earned between $10.61 and $19.84. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $8.14, and the
highest 10 percent earned more than $25.21. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers
of service technicians in 2002 were as follows:
|Automotive repair and maintenance
|Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores
Many experienced technicians employed by automobile dealers and independent repair shops receive a commission
related to the labor cost charged to the customer. Under this method, weekly earnings depend on the amount of
work completed. Employers frequently guarantee commissioned mechanics and technicians a minimum weekly salary.
Some automotive service technicians are members of labor unions such as the International Association of
Machinists and Aerospace Workers; the International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement
Workers of America; the Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association; and the International Brotherhood of
Job opportunities in this occupation are expected to be very good for persons who complete automotive training
programs in high school, vocational and technical schools, or community colleges. Persons with good diagnostic
and problem-solving skills, and whose training includes basic electronics skills, should have the best
opportunities. For well-prepared people with a technical background, automotive service technician careers offer
an excellent opportunity for good pay and the satisfaction of highly skilled work with vehicles incorporating
the latest in high technology. However, persons without formal automotive training are likely to face competition
for entry-level jobs.
Employment of automotive service technicians and mechanics is expected to increase about as fast as the average
through the year 2012. Over the 2002-12 period, population growth will boost demand for motor vehicles, which
will require regular maintenance and service. Growth of the labor force and in the number of families in which
both spouses need vehicles to commute to work will contribute to increased vehicle sales and employment in this
industry. As personal incomes continue to rise, greater numbers of persons will be able to afford the luxury of
owning multiple vehicles, which also should increase the number of passenger cars in operation. However, a
slowdown in the growth of the driving-age population, as the smaller post-baby boom generation comes of age, may
curb demand for cars and trucks. In addition, increasing demand due to growth in the number of vehicles in
operation will be partially offset by improvements in vehicle quality and durability that improve reliability and
reduce the need for extensive repair and maintenance.
Employment growth will continue to be concentrated in automobile dealerships and independent automotive repair
shops. Many new jobs also will be created in small retail operations that offer after-warranty repairs, such as
oil changes, brake repair, air-conditioner service, and other minor repairs generally taking less than 4 hours to
complete. Employment of automotive service technicians and mechanics in gasoline service stations will continue to
decline, as fewer stations offer repair services.
In addition to job openings due to growth, a substantial number of openings will be created by the need to replace
experienced technicians who transfer to other occupations or who retire or stop working for other reasons. Most
persons who enter the occupation can expect steady work, because changes in general economic conditions and
developments in other industries have little effect on the automotive repair business.
Industry data is republished with permission by the Bureau of Labor Statistics