IPA Provides Useful Information about the Food Manufacturing Industry
- The industry has a high incidence of injury and illness; meat packing plants have the highest incidence
among all food manufacturing industries.
- Production workers account for more than half of all jobs.
- Most jobs require little formal education or training; many can be learned in a few days./li>
NATURE OF THE INDUSTRY
Workers in the food manufacturing industry link farmers and other agricultural producers with consumers. They
do this by processing raw fruits, vegetables, grains, meats and dairy products into finished goods ready for
the grocer or wholesaler to sell to households, restaurants or institutional food services.
Food manufacturing workers perform tasks as varied as the many foods we eat. For example, they slaughter, dress,
and cut meat or poultry; process milk, cheese, and other dairy products; can and preserve fruits, vegetables,
and frozen specialties; manufacture flour, cereal, pet foods, and other grain mill products; make bread, cookies,
and other bakery products; manufacture sugar and candy and other confectionery products; process shortening,
margarine, and other fats and oils; and prepare packaged seafood, coffee, potato and corn chips and peanut butter.
Although this list is long, it is not exhaustive—food manufacturing workers also play a part in delivering numerous
other food products to our tables.
About 34 percent of all food manufacturing workers are employed in plants that slaughter and process animals,
and another 19 percent work in establishments that make bakery goods. Seafood product preparation and manufacturing,
the smallest sector of the food manufacturing industry, accounts for only about 3 percent of all jobs.
Many production jobs in food manufacturing involve repetitive, physically demanding work. Food manufacturing
workers are highly susceptible to repetitive strain injuries to hands, wrists and elbows. This type of injury
is especially common in meat-processing and poultry-processing plants. Production workers often stand for long
periods and may be required to lift heavy objects or use cutting, slicing, grinding and other potentially
dangerous tools and machines.
In 2002, there were 9.3 cases of work-related injury or illness per 100 full-time food manufacturing workers,
much higher than the rate of 5.3 cases for the private sector as a whole. Injury rates vary significantly among
specific food manufacturing industries, ranging from a low of 3.8 per 100 workers in flavoring extracts and syrups
plants to 14.9 per 100 in meat packing plants, the highest rate in food manufacturing.
In an effort to reduce occupational hazards, many plants have redesigned equipment, increased the use of job
rotation, allowed longer or more frequent breaks and developed training programs in safe work practices. Although
injury rates remain high, training and other changes have reduced those rates. Some workers wear protective hats,
gloves, aprons and shoes. In many industries, uniforms and protective clothing are changed daily for sanitary reasons.
Because of the considerable mechanization in the industry, most food manufacturing plants are noisy, with limited
opportunities for interaction among workers. In some highly automated plants, “hands-on” manual work has been
replaced by computers and factory automation, resulting in less waste and higher productivity. While much of the
basic production—such as trimming, chopping and sorting—will remain labor intensive for many years to come, automation
is increasingly being applied to various functions, including inventory control, product movement, packing and inspection.
Working conditions also depend on the type of food being processed. For example, some bakery employees work at night
or on weekends and spend much of their shift near ovens that can be uncomfortably hot. In contrast, workers in dairies
and meat-processing plants work typical daylight hours and may experience cold and damp conditions. Some plants, such
as those producing processed fruits and vegetables, operate on a seasonal basis, so workers are not guaranteed steady,
year-round employment and occasionally travel from region to region seeking work. These plants are increasingly rare,
however, as the industry continues to diversify and manufacturing plants produce alternate foods during otherwise
In 2002, the food manufacturing industry provided about 1.5 million jobs. Almost all employees are wage and salary
workers, but a few food manufacturing workers are self-employed. In 2002 about 29,000 establishments manufactured
food, more than 80 percent employing fewer than 50 workers. Nevertheless, establishments employing 250 or more
workers accounted for 55 percent of all jobs.
The employment distribution in this industry is widely varied. Animal slaughtering and processing employs the
largest proportion of workers. Economic changes in livestock farming and slaughtering plants have changed the
industry. Increasingly, fewer farms are producing the vast majority of livestock in the United States. Today,
there is a smaller number of much larger meat-processing plants, owned by fewer companies—a development that has
tended to concentrated employment in a few locations.
Food manufacturing workers are found in all States, although some sectors of the industry are concentrated in
certain parts of the country. For example, California, Illinois, Iowa, Pennsylvania and Texas employ more than
a quarter of workers in animal slaughtering and processing. Wisconsin accounts for one-third of all cheese
manufacturing workers. California accounts for one-fifth of fruit and vegetable preserving and specialty food
OCCUPATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY
The food manufacturing industry employs many different types of workers. More than half are production workers,
including skilled precision workers and less-skilled machine operators and laborers. Production jobs require
manual dexterity, good hand-eye coordination and in some sectors of the industry, strength.
Red meat production is the most labor-intensive food-processing operation. Animals are not uniform in size,
and slaughterers and meatpackers must slaughter, skin, eviscerate and cut each carcass into large pieces.
They usually do this work by hand, using large, heavy power saws. They also clean and salt hides and make
sausage. Meat, poultry and fish cutters and trimmers use handtools to break down the large primary cuts into
smaller sizes for shipment to wholesalers and retailers. They use knives and other handtools to eviscerate,
split and bone chickens and turkeys.
Bakers mix and bake ingredients according to recipes to produce breads, cakes, pastries and other goods.
Bakers produce goods in large quantities, using mixing machines, ovens and other equipment.
Many food manufacturing workers use their hands or small handtools to do their jobs. Cannery workers perform
a variety of routine tasks—such as sorting, grading, washing, trimming, peeling or slicing—in the canning,
freezing, or packing of food products. Hand food decorators apply artistic touches to prepared foods. Candy
molders and marzipan shapers form sweets into fancy shapes by hand.
With increasing levels of automation in the food manufacturing industry, a growing number of workers operate machines.
For example, food batchmakers operate equipment that mixes, blends, or cooks ingredients used in manufacturing various
foods, such as cheese, candy, honey and tomato sauce. Dairy-processing equipment operators process milk, cream, cheese
and other dairy products. Cutting and slicing machine operators slice bacon, bread, cheese and other foods. Mixing and
blending machine operators produce dough batters, fruit juices or spices. Crushing and grinding machine operators turn
raw grains into cereals, flour, and other milled-grain products, and they produce oils from nuts or seeds. Extruding
and forming machine operators produce molded food and candy, and casing finishers and stuffers make sausage links and
similar products. Bottle packers and bottle fillers operate machines that fill bottles and jars with preserves, pickles
and other foodstuffs.
Food cooking machine operators and tenders steam, deep fry, boil or pressure cook meats, grains, sugar, cheese or vegetables. Food
and tobacco roasting, baking and drying machine operators and tenders operate equipment that roasts grains, nuts, or coffee beans,
and tend ovens, kilns, dryers, and other equipment that removes moisture from macaroni, coffee beans, cocoa and grain. Baking
equipment operators tend ovens that bake bread, pastries and other products. Some foods—ice cream, frozen specialties and meat,
for example—are placed in freezers or refrigerators by cooling and freezing equipment operators. Other workers tend machines and
equipment that clean and wash food or food-processing equipment. Some machine operators also clean and maintain machines and perform
other duties such as checking the weight of foods.
Many other workers are needed to keep food manufacturing plants and equipment in good working order. Industrial machinery
mechanics repair and maintain production machines and equipment. Maintenance repairers perform routine machinery maintenance,
such as changing and lubricating parts. Specialized mechanics include heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics,
farm equipment mechanics and diesel engine specialists.
Still other workers directly oversee the quality of the work and of final products. Supervisors direct the activities
of production workers. Graders and sorters of agricultural products, production inspectors, and quality
control technicians evaluate foodstuffs before, during or after processing.
Food may spoil if not properly packaged and promptly delivered, so packaging and transportation employees play a vital
role in the industry. Among these are freight, stock, and material movers, who manually move materials; hand
packers and packagers, who pack bottles and other items as they come off the production line; and machine feeders and
offbearers, who feed materials into machines and remove goods from the end of the production line. Industrial truck and tractor
operators drive gasoline or electric-powered vehicles equipped with forklifts, elevated platforms, or trailer hitches to move goods
around a storage facility.
transport and deliver livestock, materials, or merchandise and may load and unload trucks. Driver/sales workers drive company
vehicles over established routes to deliver and sell goods, such as bakery items, beverages and vending machine products.
The food manufacturing industry also employs a variety of managerial and professional workers. Managers include
top executives, who make policy decisions;
industrial production managers, who organize, direct, and control
the operation of the manufacturing plant; and advertising, marketing,
promotions, public relations, and sales managers, who direct advertising, sales promotion and community relations
Engineers, scientists, and technicians are becoming increasingly important as the food manufacturing industry implements
new automation. These workers include industrial engineers,
who plan equipment layout and workflow in manufacturing plants, emphasizing efficiency and safety. Also,
mechanical engineers plan, design, and oversee the installation of
tools, equipment and machines. Chemists perform tests to develop new
products and maintain quality of existing products. Computer programmers
and systems analysts develop computer systems and programs to support management and scientific research.
Food scientists and technologists work in research laboratories or on
production lines to develop new products, test current ones and control food quality.
Finally, many sales workers, including sales representatives, wholesale
and manufacturing, are needed to sell the manufactured goods to wholesale and retail establishments.
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks and procurement clerks
keep track of the food products going into and out of the plant. Janitors and cleaners keep buildings clean and orderly.
TRAINING AND ADVANCEMENT
Most workers in production-line food manufacturing jobs require little formal education or training. Graduation
from high school is preferred but not always required. In general, inexperienced workers start as helpers to
experienced workers and learn skills on the job. Many of these entry-level jobs can be learned in a few days.
Typical jobs include operating a bread-slicing machine, washing fruits and vegetables before processing begins,
hauling carcasses or packing bottles as they come off the production line. Even though it may not take long to
learn to operate a piece of equipment, employees may need several years of experience to enable them to keep the
equipment running smoothly, efficiently and safely.
Some food manufacturing workers need specialized training and education. Inspectors and quality control workers,
for example, often are trained in food safety and may need a certificate to be employed in a food manufacturing
plant. Formal educational requirements for managers in food manufacturing plants range from 2-year degrees to
master’s degrees. Those who hold research positions, such as food scientists, usually need a master’s or
In addition to specialized training, a growing number of workers receive broader training to perform a number
of jobs. The need for flexibility in more automated workplaces has meant that many food manufacturing workers
are learning new tasks and being trained to effectively work in teams. Some specialized training exists for
bakers and some other positions.
Advancement may come in the form of higher earnings or more responsibility. Helpers usually progress to
jobs as machine operators, but the speed of this progression can vary considerably. Some workers who
perform exceptionally well on the production line, or those with special training and experience, may
advance to supervisory positions. Plant size and the existence of formal promotion tracks may influence
Requirements for other jobs are similar to requirements for the same types of jobs in other industries.
Employers usually hire high school graduates for secretarial and other clerical work. Graduates of 2-year
associate degree or other postsecondary programs often are sought for science technician and related
positions. College graduates or highly experienced workers are preferred for middle-management or
professional jobs in personnel, accounting, marketing or sales.
Production workers in food manufacturing averaged $12.54 an hour, compared with $14.95 per hour for all
workers in private industry in 2002. Weekly earnings among food manufacturing workers, were lower than
average, $497 compared with $506 for all workers in private industry in 2002. Food manufacturing workers
averaged about 39.6 hours a week, compared with only 33.9 for all workers in the private sector. Weekly
earnings ranged from $334 in seafood product preparation and packaging plants to $802 in grain and oilseed
milling plants. Hours worked play a large part in determining earnings. For example, grain- and oilseed-
milling workers, who averaged 44.2 hours a week, had higher hourly and weekly earnings than did workers
in bakeries and tortilla manufacturing companies, who averaged 36.8 hours a week.
In 2002, about 18 percent of workers in the food manufacturing industry belonged to a union or were covered
by a union contract, compared with about 15 percent of all workers in the private sector. Prominent unions
in the industry include the United Food and Commercial Workers; the International Brotherhood of Teamsters;
and the Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers International Union.
Overall wage and salary employment in food manufacturing is expected to increase by 5 percent over the 2002-12
period, compared with 16 percent employment growth projected for the entire economy. Despite the rising demand
for manufactured food products by a growing population, automation and increasing productivity are limiting
employment growth. Nevertheless, numerous job openings will arise in many segments of food manufacturing, as
experienced workers transfer to other industries or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons.
Job growth will vary by occupation but will be concentrated among food manufacturing workers—the largest group
of workers in the industry. Because many of the sorting, cutting, and chopping tasks performed by these workers
have proven difficult to automate, employment among handworkers will rise along with the growing demand for food
products. Handworking occupations include slaughterers and meat packers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters and
trimmers, whose employment will rise as the consumption of meat, poultry and fish climbs and more processing
takes place at the manufacturing level. Other production workers also will benefit from the shift in food processing
from retail establishments to manufacturing plants.
Although automation has had little effect on most handworkers, it is having a broader impact on numerous
other occupations in the industry. Fierce competition has led food manufacturing plants to invest in
technologically advanced machinery to be more productive. The new machines have been applied to tasks as
varied as packaging, inspection and inventory control. As a result, employment will not increase as rapidly
among some machine operators, such as packaging machine operators, as for industrial machinery mechanics who
repair and maintain the new machinery. Computers also are being widely implemented throughout the industry,
reducing employment growth of some mid-level managers and resulting in decreased employment for administrative
support workers, but increasing the demand for workers with excellent technical skills. Taken as a whole,
automation will continue to have a significant impact on workers in the industry as competition becomes even
more intense in coming years.
Food manufacturing firms will be able to use this new automation to better meet the changing demands of a
growing and increasingly diverse population. As convenience becomes more important, consumers increasingly
demand highly processed foods such as peeled and cut carrots, microwaveable soups, or "ready-to-heat" dinners.
Such a shift in consumption will contribute to the demand for food manufacturing workers and will lead to the
development of thousands of new processed foods. Domestic producers also will attempt to market these goods
abroad as the volume of international trade continues to grow. The increasing size and diversity of the
American population has driven demand for a greater variety of foods, including more ethnic foods. The
combination of expanding export markets and shifting and increasing domestic consumption will help employment
among food manufacturing workers to rise slightly over the next decade and will lead to significant changes
throughout the food manufacturing industry.
Industry data is republished with permission by the Bureau of Labor Statistics